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Why Doesn’t My SUV Prep Clear When I Sonicate?

There are many reasons for experiencing difficulty when sonicating lipid suspensions. The following list are some of the more common problems that may occur:

  • In general, PC is more difficult to sonicate than charged lipids.
  • Lyophilized powders disperse more readily and sonicate easier than lipid films dried from organic solvent.
  • PE membranes will aggregate to form a flocculant.
  • Charged membranes (PS, PG, PI, PA, etc.) will aggregate in the presence of divalent cations (e.g., calcium).