MPLA (PHAD®) | 699800

Monophosphoryl Lipid A (Synthetic) (PHAD®)


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Vaccination is well-accepted as an effective method to prevent infections by mounting pathogen-specific immune responses prior to the infection. Usually, immunization with vaccine antigens alone is not able to induce robust or long-lasting immune responses — resulting in failure of protective immunity against infections. Thus, adjuvants are required to enhance cellular or humoral immune responses upon immunization. Because vaccine adjuvants using Lipid A have proven to be safe and effective in inducing Th-1 type immune responses to heterologous proteins in animal and human vaccines, Avanti developed Phosphorylated HexaAcyl Disaccharide (PHAD®), the first fully synthetic monophosphoryl Lipid A available for use as an adjuvant in human vaccines.
Stimulatory effect of PHAD® and 3D-PHAD® on macrophages. Macrophage cell line J774 cells were cultured with Avanti PHAD® or 3D-PHAD® for 24hrs. IL-12 levels in supernatants were measured by sandwich ELISA.

Adjuvant Activity

Antigen: gp140 from HIV-1 PHAD®, 3D-PHAD®, and 3D(6A)-PHAD® have been tested extensively in animals using a variety of antigens. In all cases, these adjuvants exhibit a similar activity and safety profile to bacterially-derived MPL. The data above demonstrate the equivalency of the three synthetic adjuvants to the bacterially-derived MPL when presented in a liposomal carrier system (DMPC/DMPG/Cholesterol).
Molecular Formula
Percent Composition
C 65.38%, H 10.52%, N 2.38% ,O 19.96%, P 1.76
> 99%
1 Years
CAS Number
CAS Registry Number is a Registered Trademark of the American Chemical Society
Molecular Weight
Exact Mass
phosphorylated hexaacyl disaccharide
Glycopyranoside Lipid A
GIF Graphics File. 
GIF Graphics File. 
MDL Molfile. 
CDX File. 
Lousada-Dietrich, S., Jogdand, P.S., Jepsen, S., Pinto, V.V., Ditlev, S.B., Christiansen, M., Larsen, S.O., Fox, C.B., Raman, V.S., Howard, R.F., Vedvick, T.S., Ireton, G., Carter, D., Reed, S.G., Theisen, M. (2011) A synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in an emulsion enhances humoral and Type 1 cellular immune responses against GMZ2 - A GLURP-MSP3 fusion protein malaria vaccine candidate. Vaccine. [PubMed] Coler, R.N., Bertholet, S., Moutaftsi, M., Guderian, J.A., Windish, H.P., Baldwin, S.L., Laughlin, E.M., Duthie, M.S., Fox, C.B., Carter, D., Friede, M., Vedvick, T.S., Reed, S.G. (2011) Development and characterization of synthetic glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant system as a vaccine adjuvant. PLoS One. 6:e16333. [PubMed] Fox, C.B., Friede, M., Reed, S.G., Ireton, G.C. (2010) Synthetic and natural TLR4 agonists as safe and effective vaccine adjuvants. Subcell Biochem. 53:303-21. [PubMed] Anderson, R.C., Fox, C.B., Dutill, T.S., Shaverdian, N., Evers, T.L., Poshusta, G.R., Chesko, J., Coler, R.N., Friede, M., Reed, S.G., Vedvick, T.S. (2010) Physicochemical characterization and biological activity of synthetic TLR4 agonist formulations. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 75:123-32. [PubMed] Coler, R.N., S.L. Baldwin, N. Shaverdian, S. Bertholet, S.J. Reed, V.S. Raman, X. Lu, J. DeVos, K. Hancock, J.M. Katz, T.S. Vedvick, M.S. Duthie, C.H. Clegg, N. Van Hoeven, and S.G. Reed. (2010). A synthetic adjuvant to enhance and expand immune responses to influenza vaccines. PLoS One 5:e13677. [PubMed]