Coenzyme A & Derivatives

Coenzyme A (CoA) is a derivative of vitamin B5 and cysteine. One of CoA’s largest roles comes in the form of acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is produced when CoA is linked to an acetyl group through a thioester bond. Acetyl-CoA plays a key role in intermediate metabolism in organisms ranging from archaebacteria to mammals. Some of its major roles include being a precursor of anabolic reactions, regulation of enzymatic activity via allosteric interactions, and facilitation of acetyl transfer to proteins. Acetyltransferases (NATs) facilitate the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the "-amino group on the N-terminal residue of a protein. This terminal acetylation greatly affects the stability and function of a protein. The abundance of acetyl-CoA in cellular compartments can change based on various physiological and/or pathological conditions. Research has shown that acetyl-CoA is involved in some cell regulation processes via its ability to control the balance between anabolic and catabolic reactions. Several pharmaceutical agents have been and continue to be developed to influence acetyl-CoA metabolism.

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